SIMSOC next week – fill out Choice Sheet today. We can take creative measures in the game, as long as we observe the laws of the SIMSOC world. Be on time, and bring the SIMSOC manual (take the self-test in the manual to be sure we understand the rules).
The Persuasive Speech
Three kinds of proposition in persuasive speeches:
1) Fact – try to change people’s minds about facts – the world isn’t flat
2) Value – change people’s values – e.g. religious sermons
3) Policy – change the way people behave – vote for referendum 14
The assumption is that the way things are is the way they should be…this is the presumption. The “burden of proof”, that the way things are is not the way things should be, is the speaker’s responsibility, and a tie goes to the presumption. The audience must be clear on what is at issue, don’t leave the audience uncertain unless there is a kicker in the speech that is served by a degree of mystery.
The status quo must be firmly indicted…a “pain and suffering point” must be made to make the audience want to make a change (Cognitive Dissonance). The alternative should motivate the audience to action.
Three organizational schemes:
1) Start with solution – each advantage must be pressing, desired by audience
2) Need, problem, solution
3) Lead with the critic’s view – “the usual objections to a flat-rate tax are…” confronts the big objections the audience might have to a change.
Have a road map for the speech, and point out the signposts as the speech proceeds.
Pacing and pictures count, as does the poetry the words will create for “the ear”.
“Framing” – what larger pattern is this issue a part of…e.g. school uniforms can be framed in the larger issue of discipline, or conversely, individuality.
Observe the time limits of the speech, 7-8 minutes. We’ll write a one-minute introduction of our speaker. Credentials of the speaker, the topic, how the two relate, and how they relate to the audience, should be included in the introduction. Credentials can be made up, but not the name or personality of the speaker. One way to make a speech better is to try to make the introductory speech work well. A warm description, or mention of impressive credentials, can help capture the audience. A speaker can offer an outline of the key points about him or herself, sent to the person making the introduction, is usually welcome and can help make the introduction effective. Usually applause indicates a successful introduction.
We must also write a press release for the speech. This should be written in the past tense, to create interest among the media. “At a meeting in downtown Chicago this afternoon, a leading oceanographer told a Chicago business audience that Lake Michigan is about to dry up…” The press release should be one page. The title is the most important part of the press release. It should capture attention of the editor who will decide whether to publish a story about the speech. The first paragraph of the press release should motivate the press to cover or publish the speech. Two articles in the course pack will help us write the press release.
We’ll discuss today’s assignment, the Michiavelli/Noonan paper. Michiavelli was considered the first political science, he took a practical view rather than a theoretical one, wrote about how people actually behave rather than how they should behave. In The Prince, he told rulers how to cope with the harsh realities of the world. He was the first to “get real”, and “tell it like it is.” Noonan’s book was a portrait of a writer at work. One of Noonan’s strengths was her literacy, she was well read and her reading inspired her writing.